Monthly Archives: February 2016

USPTO Maintains Productivity Despite Inclement Weather

Guest blog by Russ Slifer, Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Deputy Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)

The big East Coast snowstorm last month demonstrated the continuing effectiveness of the USPTO’s telework program, as more than 9,600 of our approximately 12,000 USPTO employees were able to telework despite the aftermath of the blizzard, allowing the agency to maintain high levels of production and efficiency.

While the federal government in the Washington, D.C. area was officially shut down, 77 percent of the total USPTO workforce was teleworking at peak times of the day. Not every USPTO employee has a telework agreement. Among those who do, nearly 93 percent of all employees were working at peak times.  In terms of productivity, our Trademark examining attorneys performed more than 90 percent of the work they did on recent comparable days without closures or storms. Patent examiners accomplished an average of 84 percent of the work they did on recent comparable days. Patent Trial and Appeal Board staff continued to respond to customer enquiries, judges conducted hearings remotely, and over 20 America Invents Act decisions were entered. 

The USPTO has been leveraging telework for many years; since 1997 in fact, when the Trademark Work at Home program started. In those days, telework in most federal government agencies was still considered to be the “shiny new penny” and federal agencies were just starting to get on board the telework train. In addition to our headquarters in Alexandria, Virginia, the USPTO’s regional offices across the country also effectively use telework when needed to serve inventors and entrepreneurs in their regions.

Prior to this year, February 2010 saw the last severe blizzard-like weather in the Washington metropolitan area. When the 2010 “Snowmageddon” storm hit, the USPTO was prepared: Trademarks was able to maintain fully 86 percent of normal workday production, and, agency-wide, more than 3,000 USPTO employees logged on to the PTO Virtual Private Network (VPN). The 2010 blizzard also helped the 2010 Telework Enhancement Act gain traction, especially in the Washington metropolitan area.

Although Punxsutawney Phil predicts an early spring, the Farmer’s Almanac indicates more inclement weather before winter’s official end. Whatever the case may be, at the USPTO it is business as usual.

Source: USPTO

Transparency data: IPO payments: 2016

Updated: May payment added.

The information is based on payment date and published in monthly comma delimited files. Each record is made up of standard fields which are used across all departments.

These are:

  • department family – The Department for Business, Innovation and skills
  • entity – The Intellectual Property Office
  • date – payment date
  • expense type – type of expenditure from our the accounting system
  • expense area – the area of the Office paying for the expense
  • supplier – the supplier of the goods or services
  • transaction number – a reference to identify the transaction
  • amount – the amount in pounds
  • VAT registration number – supplier number not published

2014 payment details
2015 payment details

Pre-2014 payment datasets are available from The National Archives.

Source: UK IPO News

Consultation outcome: Proposed changes to the Patents Rules

Updated: Consultation response and impact assessment documents added.

We are seeking views on various proposed amendments to the Patents Rules 2007. The Rules govern the detail of the patent application and post-grant processes, and the changes proposed are intended to simplify processes for customers, increase legal certainty, and take account of modern ways of working. Many of the changes proposed are in response to suggestions made by users of the patent system.

We are also asking for evidence on how the proposals will work in practice, to inform our assumptions about economic impacts.

Source: UK IPO News

USPTO Submits its Fiscal Year 2017 Congressional Budget Justification

Guest Blog by Chief Financial Officer Tony Scardino

Each year, the USPTO submits a budget justification to Congress in order to obtain authority to spend the patent and trademark fees we collect. I’m pleased to announce that the USPTO has published its fiscal year (FY) 2017 Congressional Budget Justification.

The FY 2017 Congressional Budget Justification, which covers the period from October 1, 2016 through September 30, 2017, provides detailed information on how the USPTO plans to spend fees in the upcoming fiscal year. The FY 2017 budget documents our plans to enhance patent quality and continue reducing patent application pendency and backlog in order to help bring innovations to the marketplace and create jobs for the American people. It also enables us to continue maintaining our high levels of trademark quality and pendency despite increasing numbers of application filings; modernizing our information technology (IT); carrying out the provisions of the America Invents Act (AIA); and providing domestic and global intellectual property leadership.

In FY 2017, the USPTO expects to collect—and has requested an appropriation of—$3.3 billion in fee revenue, which is derived primarily from patent and trademark fee collections. This is approximately $49 million more than our FY 2016 appropriation.

Our estimated fee collections have been modified from the projections included in the FY 2016 President’s Budget to reflect new assumptions about the growth rate in patent application filings—based on our latest assumptions about demand for our services—and to incorporate proposed fee adjustments that were presented to the USPTO’s Public Advisory Committees (PACs) in early FY 2016. Both PACs have held public hearings on the agency’s proposals. We are currently awaiting and analyzing the findings and recommendations reported from our PACs. Once our analyses are completed, we will update our fee collection estimates in the notices of proposed rulemaking that will be published in the coming months.

The USPTO FY 2017 budget tells the story of a dynamic organization that is continually adapting to the ever-changing environment in which we operate. The agency maintains operating reserves to help us effectively manage through these changes. Even as fee collections vary from year to year, the operating reserves allow us to continue to make critical, multi-year investments to improve the USPTO and its operations. In FY 2015, the USPTO established minimum operating reserve levels for FY 2016 and FY 2017—$300 million for the patent operating reserve and $55 million for the trademark operating reserve—to help us mitigate known financial risks. Our goal is to continue to grow these reserves to their optimal levels of three months for patents and four months for trademarks within the five year term reported in the budget.

Throughout FY 2015, patent application filings and fee collections were trending at less than planned levels. We recognized that planned spending in FY 2016 and FY 2017 no longer aligned to our projected resources, and the agency conducted a comprehensive financial planning and resource management review. Based on this review, the USPTO’s FY 2017 budget prioritizes the agency’s spending across multiple years and reduces our budgetary requirements—i.e., what we plan to spend in FY 2016 and FY 2017—from the levels we identified at this time last year.

The budget places high priority on financing fixed operating costs (e.g., paying for on-board staff, production and operating requirements) and carrying forward with targeted investments and improvements. We also recognize that it is prudent to extend some of our information technology (IT) investments over a longer period of time in order to continue the effective implementation of critical systems that are essential to accomplishing our strategic goals.

The spending and revenue adjustments included in the FY 2017 budget allow the USPTO to continue to make responsible investments in the agency’s mission while maintaining our minimum operating reserve levels, and demonstrate the USPTO’s commitment to sound business and financial practices. Looking to the future, we will continue to assess the proper balance between pursuing strategic improvements and mitigating financial risks to the agency’s mission.

Source: USPTO

Patent Trademark Office Chennai

Photo courtesy : Indian Patent Office, Chennai

PGN & WISSEN offers services for the trademark registration and legal services with the Trademark registry Chennai. If you are  a new startup or a company already into business for a long period. The first process of starting a business always begins with the naming of the business and the goodwill that starts generating from that name, from the early stage of the establishment. The business name, or the visual representation of such name, a product name, symbol, logo, and shape of goods are a intellectual property. Like the trade name, logo, brand name,  and slogan are the vital and visual representation of a business, products, and services. Legally, it is called as a “trademark”, a visual symbol of the business, that itself becomes a valuable asset, by the popularity, goodwill, and the brand reach etc.

Registering a trademark is a legal process provided for under the Trade Marks Act, 1999. An proprietor,  a trademark agent, or an attorney could file the trademark registration office. Registration has to be filed with the respective jurisdiction office. Registered Trademark is valid for 10 years and to be renewed further.

Following are the jurisdiction details.

TRADEMARK REGISTRY AHMEDABAD : Gujarat, Rajasthan, Union Territories of Daman, Diu, Dadra, Nagar Haveli.

TRADEMARK REGISTRY CHENNAI: Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Union Territories of Pondicherry and Lakshadweep Island

TRADEMARK REGISTRY KOLKATA: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tripura, Jharkhand and Union Territories of Nagaland, Andaman & Nikobar Islands.

TRADEMARK REGISTRY MUMBAI : Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Goa

TRADEMARK REGISTRY NEW DELHI: Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi and Union Territories of Chandigarh

Documents required : –

  • Logo/Slogan/Brand image in soft copy (Example logo.JPEG).
  • TM-1 Application for registration of trademark for goods or services falling in one class
  • TM 48 (form of authorisation). In case filed through an agent or attorney
  • Date of first use of the mark.
  • Name and address of the proprietor of the mark.
  • Fees according to type of registration.
 Trademark registration is  available for following visual representation  :

– Names, including your own name or surname.
– An invented word or any arbitrary dictionary word or words. It does not need to be descriptive of the character or quality of the goods/service.
– Letters or numerals or any combination.
– Symbols
– Monograms
– Combination of colours or even a single colour in combination with a word or device.
– Shape of goods or their packaging.
– Marks constituting a 3-dimensional sign.
– Sound marks when represented in conventional notation or described in words by being graphically represented.

What does the register of trademark contain?
Currently maintained in electronic form, the trademark contains the following:
– The class and goods/services in respect of which it is registered including particulars affecting the scope of registration of rights conferred or disclaimers.
– Address of the proprietors.
– Particulars of trade or other description of the proprietor.
– The convention application date (if applicable).
– Place where a trademark has been registered with the consent of proprietor of an earlier mark or earlier rights.
How to make a trademark application?

  • Form TM-1 with the prescribed fee of Rs 2,500 at trademark registry according to your jurisdiction.
  • Trademark search of your trademark name in the Indian trademark database, before filing your trademark. This is to check, if there are any previous trademarks, visually replicates your trademark.
  • Identify the class under which your trademark need to be registered. (Class is list of category of different industries based on products and services).
  • Upon registration an official receipt with a TM number is issued.
  • Then an examination report is filed within three months from application. You will get a response to your registration either by an affidavit, a hearing or by an interview.
  • Your application will be looked at to ascertain if it does not conflict with existing registered or pending trademarks. Based on this, an examination report is issued.
  • As you defeat objections raised by the registrar, your application is then published in the Indian Trade Marks Journal, with an endorsement stating either that it has been accepted or that it is being published before acceptance.
Opposition and Acceptance

Once it is published, any third party person can file a notice of opposition to registration within 3 months.
Acceptance or refusal of your trademark application after the opposition proceedings and decision.

Costs for trademark transactions
– Registration fees INR 2,500
– Trademark Search fees to the agent or attorney, if the search is conducted by them. Normally costs INR 3000 to 5000
– Service fee to the agents or attorney.
Forms Required:  TM-1, TM-8, TM-48 – TM 8 required in case of more than one class.
Class headings :


Classification of goods and services – Name of the classes 

(Parts of an article or apparatus are, in general, classified with the actual article or apparatus, except where such parts constitute articles included in other classes). 

Class 1. Chemical used in industry, science, photography, agriculture, horticulture and forestry; unprocessed artificial resins, unprocessed plastics; manures; fire extinguishing compositions; tempering and soldering preparations; chemical substances for preserving foodstuffs; tanning substances; adhesive used in industry 

Class 2 . Paints, varnishes, lacquers; preservatives against rust and against deterioration of wood; colorants; mordents; raw natural resins; metals in foil and powder form for painters; decorators; printers and artists 

Class 3 . Bleaching preparations and other substances for laundry use; cleaning; polishing; scouring and abrasive preparations; soaps; perfumery, essential oils, cosmetics, hair lotions, dentifrices 

Class 4 . Industrial oils and greases; lubricants; dust absorbing, wetting and binding compositions; fuels(including motor spirit) and illuminants; candles, wicks

Class 5 . Pharmaceutical, veterinary and sanitary preparations; dietetic substances adapted for medical use, food for babies; plasters, materials for dressings; materials for stopping teeth, dental wax; disinfectants; preparation for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides 

Class 6. Common metals and their alloys; metal building materials; 

transportable buildings of metal; materials of metal for railway tracks; non-electric cables and wires of common metal; ironmongery, small items of metal hardware; pipes and tubes of metal; safes; goods of common metal not included in other classes; ores 

Class 7 . Machines and machine tools; motors and engines (except for land vehicles); machine coupling and transmission components (except for land vehicles); agricultural implements other than hand-operated; incubators for eggs 

Class 8 . Hand tools and implements (hand-operated); cutlery; side arms; razors 

Class 9 . Scientific, nautical, surveying, electric, photographic, cinematographic, optical, weighing, measuring, signalling, checking (supervision), life saving and teaching apparatus and instruments; apparatus for recording, transmission or reproduction of sound or images; magnetic data carriers, recording discs; automatic vending machines and mechanisms for coin-operated apparatus; cash registers, calculating machines, data processing equipment and computers; fire extinguishing apparatus

Class 10 . Surgical, medical, dental and veterinary apparatus and instruments, artificial limbs, eyes and teeth; orthopaedic articles; suture materials

Class 11 . Apparatus for lighting, heating, steam generating, cooking, refrigerating, drying ventilating, water supply and sanitary purposes 

Class 12 . Vehicles; apparatus for locomotion by land, air or water 

Class 13 . Firearms; ammunition and projectiles; explosives; fire works 

Class 14 . Precious metals and their alloys and goods in precious metals or coated therewith, not included in other classes; jewellery, precious stones; horological and other chronometric instruments

Class 15. Musical instruments 

Class 16 . Paper, cardboard and goods made from these materials, not included in other classes; printed matter; bookbinding material; photographs; stationery; adhesives for stationery or household purposes; artists’ materials; paint brushes; typewriters and office requisites (except furniture); instructional and teaching material (except apparatus); plastic materials for packaging (not included in other classes); playing cards; printers’ type; printing blocks 

Class 17 . Rubber, gutta percha, gum, asbestos, mica and goods made from these materials and not included in other classes; plastics in extruded form for use in manufacture; packing, stopping and insulating materials; flexible pipes, not of metal

Class 18 . Leather and imitations of leather, and goods made of these materials and not included in other classes; animal skins, hides, trunks and travelling bags; umbrellas, parasols and walking sticks; whips, harness and saddlery

Class 19 . Building materials, (non-metallic), non-metallic rigid pipes for building; asphalt, pitch and bitumen; non-metallic transportable buildings; monuments, not of metal. 

Class 20 . Furniture, mirrors, picture frames; goods(not included in other classes) of wood, cork, reed, cane, wicker, horn, bone, ivory, whalebone, shell, amber, mother- of-pearl, meerschaum and substitutes for all these materials, or of plastics

Class 21 . Household or kitchen utensils and containers(not of precious metal or coated therewith); combs and sponges; brushes(except paints brushes); brush making materials; articles for cleaning purposes; steelwool; unworked or semi-worked glass (except glass used in building); glassware, porcelain and earthenware not included in other classes

Class 22 . Ropes, string, nets, tents, awnings, tarpaulins, sails, sacks and bags (not included in other classes) padding and stuffing materials(except of rubber or plastics); raw fibrous textile materials

Class 23 . Yarns and threads, for textile use 

Class 24 . Textiles and textile goods, not included in other classes; bed and table covers. 

Class 25 . Clothing, footwear, headgear 

Class 26 . Lace and embroidery, ribbons and braid; buttons, hooks and eyes, pins and needles; artificial flowers 

Class 27 . Carpets, rugs, mats and matting, linoleum and other materials for covering existing floors; wall hangings(non-textile) 

Class 28 . Games and playthings, gymnastic and sporting articles not included in other classes; decorations for Christmas trees 

Class 29 . Meat, fish, poultry and game; meat extracts; preserved, dried and cooked fruits and vegetables; jellies, jams, fruit sauces; eggs, milk and milk products; edible oils and fats 

Class 30 . Coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, rice, tapioca, sago, artificial coffee; flour and preparations made from cereals, bread, pastry and confectionery, ices; honey, treacle; yeast, baking powder; salt, mustard; vinegar, sauces, (condiments); spices; ice 

Class 31. Agricultural, horticultural and forestry products and grains not included in other classes; live animals; fresh fruits and vegetables; seeds, natural plants and flowers; foodstuffs for animals, malt 

Class 32 . Beers, mineral and aerated waters, and other non-alcoholic drinks; fruit drinks and fruit juices; syrups and other preparations for making beverages 

Class 33 .Alcoholic beverages(except beers) 

Class 34 . Tobacco, smokers’ articles, matches 


Class 35 .Advertising, business management, business administration, office functions. 

Class 36 .Insurance, financial affairs; monetary affairs; real estate affairs. 

Class 37 . Building construction; repair; installation services. 

Class 38. Telecommunications. 

Class 39. Transport; packaging and storage of goods; travel arrangement. 

Class 40. Treatment of materials. 

Class 41. Education; providing of training; entertainment; sporting and cultural activities. 

Class 42. Scientific and technological services and research and design relating thereto; industrial analysis and research services; design and development of computer hardware and software. 

Class 43. Services for providing food and drink; temporary accommodation. 

Class 44. Medical services, veterinary services, hygienic and beauty care for human beings or animals; agriculture, horticulture and forestry services. 

Class 45. Legal services; security services for the protection of property and individuals; personal and social services rendered by others to meet the needs of individuals.


StartupIndia IPR Action Plan, Startup companies have to get ready for the IP.

On January 16, 2016 Indian Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi, have announced the action plan for the  Status India. Action Plan. This plan elaborates the objectives of the promotion of entrepreneurship and the government’s support in executing the plan.

This plan covers on process, legal procedures, incentives, incubation, IPR support, Tax norms, Exemptions, institutional partnership, and students participation.

The whole action plan available below. From Intellectual property point of view, it is important to note that the one of the initiative plan for the IPR activity is to build a portal and mobile application. Second, government planning to empanel  facilitators/patent attorneys to help the startup companies in IP registration and education awareness purposes. Cost would be paid to the facilitators by the Government, and rebate on patent filing costs.

Objective of IPR initiatives in the action plan is to promote awareness and adoption of IPRs by Startups. Secondly,  to facilitate them in protecting and commercializing the IPRs by providing access to high quality Intellectual Property services and resources, including fast-track examination of patent applications and rebate in fees.

As we all know, the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are emerging as a strategic business tool for any business organization to enhance industrial competitiveness. Startups with limited resources and manpower, it is  difficult for them to sustain in this highly competitive world, but only through continuous growth and development oriented innovations they could grow; for this reason, and it is equally crucial that they protect their intellectual knowledge into assets. Notably, the scheme for Startup Intellectual Property Protection (SIPP) shall facilitate filing of Patents, Trademarks and Designs by innovative Startups. Various measures being taken in SIPP would include:

  • Fast-tracking of Startup patent applications: The valuation of any innovation goes up immensely, once it gets the protective cover of a patent. To this end, the patent application of Startups shall be fast-tracked for examination and disposal, so that they can realize the value of their IPRs at the earliest possible.
  • Panel of facilitators to assist in filing of IP applications: For effective implementation of the scheme, a panel of “facilitators” shall be empanelled by the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks (CGPDTM), who shall also regulate their conduct and functions. Facilitators will be responsible for providing general advisory on different IPRs as also information on protecting and promoting IPRs in other countries. They shall also provide assistance in filing and disposal of the IP applications related to patents, trademarks and designs under relevant Acts, including appearing on behalf of Startups at hearings and contesting opposition, if any, by other parties, till final disposal of the IPR application.
  • Government to bear facilitation cost: Under this scheme, the Central Government shall bear the entire fees of the facilitators for any number of patents, trademarks or designs that a Startup may file, and the Startups shall bear the cost of only the statutory fees payable.
  • Rebate on filing of application: Startups shall be provided an 80% rebate in filing of patents vis-a-vis other companies. This will help them pare costs in the crucial formative years.The scheme is being launched initially on a pilot basis for 1 year; based on the experience gained, further steps shall be taken.STARTUP INDIA ACTION PLAN  IN DETAIL.
  • What if your idea is not just an idea?
  • What if it sees light?
  • What if it’s really born?
  • What if you can get someone to believe in it?
  • And help you nurture it?
  • What if you can set a clear path for it?
  • What if it can actually travel?
  • What if it grows and blooms?
  • What if the whole world embraces it?
  • What if your idea is not just an idea?

Table of Contents




Section 1



Section 2

Action Plan: Proposed Schemes and Incentives


Section 2.1

Simplification and Handholding



Compliance Regime based on Self-certification



Startup India Hub



Rolling out of Mobile App and Portal



Legal Support and Fast-tracking Patent Examination at Lower Costs



Relaxed Norms of Public Procurement for Startups



Faster Exit for Startups


Section 2.2

Funding Support and Incentives



Providing Funding Support through a Fund of Funds with a Corpus of INR 10,000 crore



Credit Guarantee Fund for Startups



Tax Exemption on Capital Gains



Tax Exemption to Startups for 3 years



Tax Exemption on Investments above Fair Market Value


Section 2.3

Industry-Academia Partnership and Incubation



Organizing Startup Fests for Showcasing Innovation and Providing a Collaboration Platform



Launch of Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) with Self-Employment and Talent Utilization (SETU) Program



Harnessing Private Sector Expertise for Incubator Setup



Building Innovation Centres at National Institutes



Setting up of 7 New Research Parks Modeled on the Research Park Setup at IIT Madras



Promoting Startups in the Biotechnology Sector



Launching of Innovation Focused Programs for Students



Annual Incubator Grand Challenge


Annexure I

Definition of a Startup (only for the purpose of Government schemes)


Annexure II



Section 1 – Introduction

“I see startups, technology and innovation as exciting and effective instruments for
India’s transformation.” – Shri Narendra Modi Prime Minister of India

Startup India is a flagship initiative of the Government of India, intended to build a strong eco-system for nurturing innovation and Startups in the country that will drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities. The Government through this initiative aims to empower Startups to grow through innovation and design.

In order to meet the objectives of the initiative, Government of India is announcing this Action Plan that addresses all aspects of the Startup ecosystem. With this Action Plan the Government hopes to accelerate spreading of the Startup movement:

  • From digital/ technology sector to a wide array of sectors including agriculture, manufacturing, social sector, healthcare, education, etc.; and
  • From existing tier 1 cities to tier 2 and tier 3 citites including semi-urban and rural areas. The Action Plan is divided across the following areas:
  • Simplification and Handholding
  • Funding Support and Incentives
  • Industry-Academia Partnership and IncubationThe definition of a Startup (only for the purpose of Government schemes) has been detailed in Annexure I.

Section 2 – Action Plan

Proposed Schemes and Incentives

Section 2.1 – Action Plan Simplification and Handholding


To reduce the regulatory burden on Startups thereby allowing them to focus on their core business and keep compliance cost low


Regulatory formalities requiring compliance with various labour and environment laws are time consuming and difficult in nature. Often, new and small firms are unaware of nuances of the issues and can be subjected to intrusive action by regulatory agencies. In order to make compliance for Startups friendly and flexible, simplifications are required in the regulatory regime.

Accordingly, the process of conducting inspections shall be made more meaningful and simple. Startups shall be allowed to self-certify compliance (through the Startup mobile app) with 9 labour and environment laws (refer below). In case of the labour laws, no inspections will be conducted for a period of 3 years. Startups may be inspected on receipt of credible and verifiable complaint of violation, filed in writing and approved by at least one level senior to the inspecting officer.

In case of environment laws, Startups which fall under the ‘white category’ (as defined by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)) would be able to self-certify compliance and only random checks would be carried out in such cases.

Labour Laws:

  • The Building and Other Constructions Workers’ (Regulation of Employment & Conditions ofService) Act, 1996
  • The Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment & Conditions of Service) Act, 1979
  • The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972
  • The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970
  • The Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952
  • The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948


Compliance Regime based on Self-Certification

Environment Laws:

  • The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
  • The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Cess (Amendment) Act, 2003
  • The Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981


Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion


To create a single point of contact for the entire Startup ecosystem and enable knowledge exchange and access to funding


Young Indians today have the conviction to venture out on their own and a conducive ecosystem lets them watch their ideas come to life. In today’s environment we have more Startups and entrepreneurs than ever before and the movement is at the cusp of a revolution. However, many Startups do not reac h their full potential due to limited guidance and access.

The Government of India has taken various measures to improve the ease of doing business and is also building an exciting and enabling environment for these Startups, with the launch of the “Startup India” movement.

The “Startup India Hub” will be a key stakeholder in this vibrant ecosystem and will:

  • Work in a hub and spoke model and collaborate with Central & State governments, Indian and foreign VCs, angel networks, banks, incubators, legal partners, consultants, universities and R&D institutions
  • Assist Startups through their lifecycle with specific focus on important aspects like obtaining financing, feasibility testing, business structuring advisory, enhancement of marketing skills, technology commercialization and management evaluation
  • Organize mentorship programs in collaboration with government organizations, incubation centers, educational institutions and private organizations who aspire to foster innovation.To all young Indians who have the courage to enter an environment of risk, the Startup India Hub will be their friend, mentor and guide to hold their hand and walk with them through this journey.


Startup India Hub


To serve as the single platform for Startups for interacting with Government and Regulatory Institutions for all business needs and information exchange among various stakeholders


In order to commence operations, Startups require registration with relevant regulatory authorities. Delays or lack of clarity in registration process may lead to delays in establishment and operations of Startups, thereby reducing the ability of the business to get bank loans, employ workers and generate incomes. Enabling registration process in an easy and timely manner can reduce this burden significantly.

Besides, Startups often suffer from the uncertainty regarding the exact regulatory requirements to set up its operations. In order to ensure that such information is readily available, it is intended that a checklist of required licenses covering labour licensing, environmental clearances etc. be made available. Currently, the Startup ecosystem in India also lacks formal platform(s) for Startups to connect and collaborate with other ecosystem partners.

Towards these efforts, the Government shall introduce a Mobile App to provide on-the-go accessibility for:

  • Registering Startups with relevant agencies of the Government. A simple form shall be made available for the same. The Mobile App shall have backend integration with Ministry of Corporate Affairs and Registrar of Firms for seamless information exchange and processing of the registration application
  • Tracking the status of the registration application and anytime downloading of the registration certificate. A digital version of the final registration certificate shall be made available for downloading through the Mobile App
  • Filing for compliances and obtaining information on various clearances/ approvals/ registrations required
  • Collaborating with various Startup ecosystem partners. The App shall provide a collaborative platform with a national network of stakeholders (including venture funds, incubators, academia, mentors etc.) of the Startup ecosystem to have discussions towards enhancing and bolstering the ecosystem
  • Applying for various schemes being undertaken under the Startup India Action PlanThe App shall be made available from April 01, 2016 on all leading mobile/ smart devices’ platforms. The Startup portal shall have similar functionalities (being offered through the mobile app) using a richer web-based User Interface.


Rolling-out of Mobile App and Portal


To promote awareness and adoption of IPRs by Startups and facilitate them in protecting and commercializing the IPRs by providing access to high quality Intellectual Property services and resources, including fast-track examination of patent applications and rebate in fees.


Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are emerging as a strategic business tool for any business organization to enhance industrial competitiveness. Startups with limited resources and manpower, can sustain in this highly competitive world only through continuous growth and development oriented innovations; for this, it is equally crucial that they protect their IPRs. The scheme for Startup Intellectual Property Protection (SIPP) shall facilitate filing of Patents, Trademarks and Designs by innovative Startups. Various measures being taken in this regard include:

  • Fast-tracking of Startup patent applications: The valuation of any innovation goes up immensely, once it gets the protective cover of a patent. To this end, the patent application of Startups shall be fast-tracked for examination and disposal, so that they can realize the value of their IPRs at the earliest possible.
  • Panel of facilitators to assist in filing of IP applications: For effective implementation of the scheme, a panel of “facilitators” shall be empanelled by the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks (CGPDTM), who shall also regulate their conduct and functions. Facilitators will be responsible for providing general advisory on different IPRs as also information on protecting and promoting IPRs in other countries. They shall also provide assistance in filing and disposal of the IP applications related to patents, trademarks and designs under relevant Acts, including appearing on behalf of Startups at hearings and contesting opposition, if any, by other parties, till final disposal of the IPR application.
  • Government to bear facilitation cost: Under this scheme, the Central Government shall bear the entire fees of the facilitators for any number of patents, trademarks or designs that a Startup may file, and the Startups shall bear the cost of only the statutory fees payable.
  • Rebate on filing of application: Startups shall be provided an 80% rebate in filing of patents vis-a-vis other companies. This will help them pare costs in the crucial formative years.The scheme is being launched initially on a pilot basis for 1 year; based on the experience gained, further steps shall be taken.


Legal Support and Fast-tracking Patent Examination at Lower Costs


To provide an equal platform to Startups (in the manufacturing sector) vis-à-vis the experienced entrepreneurs/ companies in public procurement


Typically, whenever a tender is floated by a Government entity or by a PSU, very often the eligibility condition specifies either “prior experience” or “prior turnover”. Such a stipulation prohibits/ impedes Startups from participating in such tenders.

At present, effective April 1, 2015 Central Government, State Government and PSUs have to mandatorily procure at least 20% from the Micro Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME).

In order to promote Startups, Government shall exempt Startups (in the manufacturing sector) from the criteria of “prior experience/ turnover” without any relaxation in quality standards or technical parameters. The Startups will also have to demonstrate requisite capability to execute the project as per the requirements and should have their own manufacturing facility in India.


Relaxed Norms of Public Procurement for Startups

Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion


To make it easier for Startups to wind up operations


Given the innovative nature of Startups, a significant percentage fail to succeed. In the event of a business failure, it is critical to reallocate capital and resources to more productive avenues and accordingly a swift and simple process has been proposed for Startups to wind-up operations. This will promote entrepreneurs to experiment with new and innovative ideas, without having the fear of facing a complex and long-drawn exit process where their capital remain interminably stuck.

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Bill 2015 (“IBB”), tabled in the Lok Sabha in December 2015 has provisions for the fast track and / or voluntary closure of businesses.

In terms of the IBB, Startups with simple debt structures or those meeting such criteria as may be specified may be wound up within a period of 90 days from making of an application for winding up on a fast track basis. In such instances, an insolvency professional shall be appointed for the Startup, who shall be in charge of the company (the promoters and management shall no longer run the company) for liquidating its assets and paying its creditors within six months of such appointment. On appointment of the insolvency professional, the liquidator shall be responsible for the swift closure of the business, sale of assets and repayment of creditors in accordance with the distribution waterfall set out in the IBB. This process will respect the concept of limited liability.


Faster Exit for Startups

Section 2.2: Funding Support and Incentives

Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion


To provide funding support for development and growth of innovation driven enterprises


One of key challenges faced by Startups in India has been access to finance. Often Startups, due to lack of collaterals or existing cash flows, fail to justify the loans. Besides, the high risk nature of Startups wherein a significant percentage fail to take-off, hampers their investment attractiveness.

In order to provide funding support to Startups, Government will set up a fund with an initial corpus of INR 2,500 crore and a total corpus of INR 10,000 crore over a period 4 years (i.e. INR 2,500 crore per year) . The Fund will be in the nature of Fund of Funds, which means that it will not invest directly into Startups, but shall participate in the capital of SEBI registered Venture Funds.

Key features of the Fund of Funds are highlighted below:

  • The Fund of Funds shall be managed by a Board with private professionals drawn from industry bodies, academia, and successful Startups
  • Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) shall be a co-investor in the Fund of Funds
  • The Fund of Funds shall contribute to a maximum of 50% of the stated daughter fund size. In order to be able to receive the contribution, the daughter fund should have already raised the balance 50% or more of the stated fund size as the case maybe. The Fund of Funds shall have representation on the governance structure/ board of the venture fund based on the contribution made.
  • The Fund shall ensure support to a broad mix of sectors such as manufacturing, agriculture, health, education, etc.


Providing Funding Support through a Fund of Funds with a Corpus of INR 10,000 crore


To catalyse enterpreneurship by providing credit to innovators accross all sections of society


In order to overcome traditional Indian stigma associated with failure of Startup enterprises in general and to encourage experimentation among Startup entrepreneurs through disruptive business models, credit guarantee comfort would help flow of Venture Debt from the formal Banking System.

Debt funding to Startups is also perceived as high risk area and to encourage Banks and other Lenders to provide Venture Debts to Startups, Credit guarantee mechanism through National Credit Guarantee Trust Company (NCGTC)/ SIDBI is being envisaged with a budgetary Corpus of INR 500 crore per year for the next four years.


Credit Guarantee Fund for Startups


To promote investments into Startups by mobilizing the capital gains arising from sale of capital assets


Due to their high risk nature, Startups are not able to attract investment in their initial stage. It is therefore important that suitable incentives are provided to investors for investing in the Startup ecosystem. With this objective, exemption shall be given to persons who have capital gains during the year, if they have invested such capital gains in the Fund of Funds recognized by the Government.

This will augment the funds available to various VCs/AIFs for investment in Startups.

In addition, existing capital gain tax exemption for investment in newly formed manufacturing MSMEs by individuals shall be extended to all Startups. Currently, such an entity needs to purchase “new assests” with the capital gain received to avail such an exemption. Investment in ‘computer or computer software’ (as used in core business activity) shall also be considered as purchase of ‘new assets’ in order to promote technology driven Startups.


Tax Exemption on Capital Gains


To promote the growth of Startups and address working capital requirements


Innovation is the essence of every Startup. Young minds kindle new ideas every day to think beyond conventional strategies of the existing corporate world.

During the initial years, budding entrepreneurs struggle to evaluate the feasibility of their business idea. Significant capital investment is made in embracing ever-changing technology, fighting rising competition and navigating through the unique challenges arising from their venture. Also, there are limited alternative sources of finance available to the small and growing entrepreneurs, leading to constrained cash funds.

With a view to stimulate the development of Startups in India and provide them a competitive platform, it is imperative that the profits of Startup initiatives are exempted from income-tax for a period of 3 years. This fiscal exemption shall facilitate growth of business and meet the working capital requirements during the initial years of operations. The exemption shall be available subject to non-distribution of dividend by the Startup.


Tax Exemption to Startups for 3 years


To encourage seed-capital investment in Startups


Under The Income Tax Act, 1961, where a Startup (company) receives any consideration for issue of shares which exceeds the Fair Market Value (FMV) of such shares, such excess consideration is taxable in the hands of recipient as Income from Other Sources.

In the context of Startups, where the idea is at a conceptualization or development stage, it is often difficult to determine the FMV of such shares. In majority of the cases, FMV is also significantly lower than the value at which the capital investment is made. This results into the tax being levied under section 56(2) (viib).

Currently, investment by venture capital funds in Startups is exempted from operations of this provision. The same shall be extended to investment made by incubators in the Startups.


Tax Exemption on Investments above Fair Market Value

Section 2.3: Industry-Academia Partnership and Incubation


To galvanize the Startup ecosystem and to provide national and international visibility to the Startup ecosystem in India


A pivotal component for growth of Startups is regular communication and collaboration within the Startup community, both national as well international. An effective Startup ecosystem can’t be created by the Startups alone. It is dependent on active participation of academia, investors, industry and other stakeholders.

To bolster the Startup ecosystem in India, the Government is proposing to introduce Startup fests at national and international stages.

These fests would provide a platform to Startups in India to showcase their ideas and work with a larger audience comprising of potential investors, mentors and fellow Startups.

As part of “Make in India” initiative, Government proposes to:

• Hold one fest at the national level annually to enable all the stakeholders of Startup ecosystem to come together on one platform.

• Hold one fest at the international level annually in an international city known for its Startup ecosystem.

The fests shall have activities such as sessions to connect with investors, mentors, incubators and Startups, showcasing innovations, exhibitions and product launches, pitches by Startups, mentoring sessions, curated Startup walks, talks by disruptive innovators, competitions such as Hackathon, Makerspace, etc., announcements of rewards and recognitions, panels and conferences with industry leaders, etc.


Organizing Startup Fests for Showcasing Innovation and Providing a Collaboration Platform



To serve as a platform for promotion of world-class Innovation Hubs, Grand Challenges, Startup businesses and other self-employment activities, particularly in technology driven areas


The Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) shall have two core functions:

  • Entrepreneurship promotion through Self-Employment and Talent Utilization (SETU), wherein innovators would be supported and mentored to become successful entrepreneurs
  • Innovation promotion: to provide a platform where innovative ideas are generated The main components proposed to be undertaken as part of the mission include: Entrepreneurship promotion:
  • Establishment of sector specific Incubators including in PPP mode (refer #14 of this Action Plan)
  • Establishment of 500 Tinkering Labs
  • Pre-incubation training to potential entrepreneurs in various technology areas in collaboration with various academic institutions having expertise in the field
  • Strengthening of incubation facilities in existing incubators and mentoring of Startups
  • Seed funding to potentially successful and high growth Startups Innovation promotion:
  • Institution of Innovation Awards (3 per state/UT) and 3 National level awards
  • Providing support to State Innovation Councils for awareness creation and organizing state level workshops/conferences
  • Launch of Grand Innovation Challenge Awards for finding ultra-low cost solutions to India’s pressing and intractable problems20


Launch of Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) with Self-Employment and Talent Utilization (SETU) Program

Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion


To ensure professional management of Government sponsored / funded incubators, Government will create a policy and framework for setting-up of incubators across the country in public private partnership


India currently lacks availability of incubation facilities across various parts of the country. Incubation facilities typically include physical infrastructure, provision of mentorship support, access to networks, access to market, etc. Of all these features, physical infrastructure entails large capital investments which can generally be facilitated by the Government. However, requisite skills for operating an incubator are pivotal as well, for which expertise of the private sector needs to be leveraged. Considering this, Government shall encourage setting up of;

  • 35 new incubators in existing institutions. Funding support of 40% (subject to a maximum of INR 10 crore) shall be provided by Central Government for establishment of new incubators for which 40% funding by the respective State Government and 20% funding by the private sector has been committed. The incubator shall be managed and operated by the private sector.
  • 35 new private sector incubators. A grant of 50% (subject to a maximum of INR 10 crore) shall be provided by Central Government for incubators established by private sector in existing institutions. The incubator shall be managed and operated by the private sector.The funding for setting up of the incubators shall be provided by NITI Aayog as part of Atal Innovation Mission (refer #13 of this Action Plan). Participating departments and agencies for setting up of new incubators shall be Department of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, Department of Higher Education, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion and NITI Aayog.Each of the above mentioned departments/agencies would enter into a standard MoU with identified private sector players for creation of academia-industry tie-ups for nurturing innovations in academic institutions.



Harnessing Private Sector Expertise for Incubator Setup


To propel successful innovation through augmentation of incubation and R&D efforts


In order to augment the incubation and R&D efforts in the country, the Government will set up/ scale up 31 centres (to provide facilities for over 1,200 new Startups) of innovation and entrepreneurship at national institutes, including:

• Setting-up 13 Startup centres: Annual funding support of INR 50 lakhs (shared 50:50 by DST and MHRD) shall be provided for three years for encouraging student driven Startups from the host institute.

• Setting-up/ Scaling-up 18 Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) at NITs/IITs/IIMs etc. as per funding model of DST with MHRD providing smooth approvals for TBI to have separate society and built up space.


Building Innovation Centres at National Institutes

Startup Centres

Technology Business Incubators

RGIIM Shillong


MANIT Bhopal

IISER Bhopal

NIT Warangal

NIT Delhi

NIT Agartala

NIT Rourkela

IIM Rohtak


MNIT Allahabad

NIT Silchar

NIT Jalandhar

IIT Mandi

NIT Tiruchirappalli

VNIT Nagpur

IIT Bhubaneswar

IIM Udaipur

IISER Mohali

IIT Patna

IIITDM Kancheepuram

NIT Patna

NIT Calicut

IIT Roorkee


NIT Arunachal Pradesh

IIT Ropar

IIM Kozhikode


IISER Thiruvananthapuram

IIM Raipur


To propel successful innovation through incubation and joint R&D efforts between academia and industry


  • The Government shall set up 7 new Research Parks in institutes indicated below with an initial investment of INR 100 crore each. The Research Parks shall be modeled based on the Research Park setup at IIT Madras.
  • The IIT Madras Research Park endeavors to enable companies with a research focus to set up a base in the Park and leverage the expertise of IIT Madras. The Research Park breaks down the traditional, artificial barriers of innovation through its connectivity and collaborative interaction. This helps industry to create, integrate and apply advancements in knowledge. It leverages best practices from successful Research Parks such as those at Stanford, MIT and Cambridge.The guiding principles behind the park include:
  • Creating a collaborative environment between industry and academia through joint research projects and consulting assignments.
  • Creating a self-sustaining and technologically fertile environment.
  • Encouraging and enabling R&D activities and Startups that are aligned to potential needs of theindustry.
  • Providing world class infrastructure for R&D activities and incubation.
  • Enabling development of high quality personnel and motivating professional growth for researchers in companies through part time Masters and PhD Programs.


Setting up of 7 New Research Parks Modeled on the Research Park Setup at IIT Madras

Research Parks

IIT Guwahati

IIT Hyderabad

IIT Kanpur

IIT Kharagpur

IISc Bangalore

IIT Gandhinagar

IIT Delhi


To foster and facilitate bio-entrepreneurship


The Biotechnology sector in India is on a strong, growth trajectory. Department of Biotechnology endeavors to scale up the number of Startups in the sector by nurturing approximately 300-500 new Startups each year to have around 2,000 Startups by 2020. In order to promote Startups in the sector, The Department of Biotechnology shall be implementing the following measures along with its Public Sector Undertaking Biotechnology Research Assistance Council (BIRAC):

Bio-incubators, Seed Fund and Equity Funding:

  • 5 new Bio-clusters, 50 new Bio-Incubators, 150 technology transfer offices and 20 Bio-Connect offices will be set up in research institutes and universities across India.
  • Biotech Equity Fund – BIRAC AcE Fund in partnership with National and Global Equity Funds (Bharat Fund, India Aspiration Fund amongst others) will provide financial assistance to young Biotech Startups.Encouraging and leveraging global partnerships:
  • Bengaluru-Boston Biotech Gateway to India has been formed. Letter of Intent has been signed between DBT, GoI and Department of IT, Government of Karnataka for the same. Through this initiative, a range of institutes in Boston (Harvard/ MIT) and Bengaluru will be able to connect to share ideas and mentor the entrepreneurs especially in the areas of Genomics, Computational Biology, Drug Discovery and new vaccines.
  • Amplification of Bio-entrepreneurship through BIRAC Regional Entrepreneurship Centres (BREC). The BREC aims to impart bio-entrepreneurs with the necessary knowledge and skills required for converting innovative ideas into successful ventures. Department of Biotechnology shall set up 5 Regional centres or Mini-BIRACs in the next 5 years.


Promoting Startups in the Biotechnology Sector


To foster a culture of innovation in the field of Science and Technology amongst students


In order to promote research and innovation among young students, the Government shall implement the following measures:

  • Innovation Core. Innovation Core program shall be initiated to target school kids with an outreach to 10 lakh innovations from 5 lakh schools. One lakh innovations would be targeted and the top 10,000 innovations would be provided prototyping support. Of these 10,000 innovations, the best 100 would be shortlisted and showcased at the Annual Festival of Innovations in the Rashtrapati Bhavan.
  • NIDHI: A Grand Challenge program (“National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovations) shall be instituted through Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development Centres (IEDCs) to support and award INR 10 lakhs to 20 student innovations from IEDCs.
  • Uchhattar Avishkar Yojana: A joint MHRD-DST scheme which has earmarked INR 250 crore per annum towards fostering “very high quality” research amongst IIT students. The funding towards this research will be 50% contribution from MHRD, 25% from DST and 25% from industry. This format has been devised to ensure that the research and funding gets utilized bearing in mind its relevance to the industry. Each project may amount to INR 5 crore only. This scheme will initially apply to IITs only.


Launching of Innovation Focused Programs for Students


To support creation of successful world class incubators in India


For a new idea to become a successful commercial venture, adequate support and mentoring at various stages of the business lifecycle is required. Incubators play an important role in identifying early stage Startups and supporting them across various phases of their lifecycle. In order to build an effective Startup ecosystem, it is imperative that world class incubators, adopting leading industry practices, are setup in the country.

The Government is proposing to make forward looking investments towards building world class incubators. In its first phase, the aim is to establish 10 such incubators. To enable this, GoI shall identify and select 10 incubators who have the potential to become world class. These incubators would be given INR 10 crore each as financial assistance which may be used for ramping up the quality of service offerings. The incubators shall also become reference models for other incubators aspiring to offer best-in-class services. Video interviews of these incubators would be showcased on the Startup India portal.

An “Incubator Grand Challenge” exercise shall be carried out for identification of these incubators. The exercise shall entail:


Annual Incubator Grand Challenge

  • Open invitation of applications from incubators
  • Screening and evaluation based on pre-defined Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) The Incubator Grand Challenge shall be an annual exercise.

Annexure I: Definition of a Startup (only for the purpose of Government schemes)

Part A: Definition of Startup (only for the purpose of Government schemes)

Startup means an entity, incorporated or registered in India not prior to five years, with annual turnover not exceeding INR 25 crore in any preceding financial year, working towards innovation, development, deployment or commercialization of new products, processes or services driven by technology or intellectual property.

Provided that such entity is not formed by splitting up, or reconstruction, of a business already in existence.

Provided also that an entity shall cease to be a Startup if its turnover for the previous financial years has exceeded INR 25 crore or it has completed 5 years from the date of incorporation/ registration.

Provided further that a Startup shall be eligible for tax benefits only after it has obtained certification from the Inter-Ministerial Board, setup for such purpose.

Part B: Definition of terms




Private Limited Company (under The Companies Act, 2013) or a Registered Partnership Firm (under The Indian Partnership Act, 1932) or Limited Liability Partnership (under The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008)

Identification of businesses covered under the definition in Part A above

A business is covered under the definition if it aims to develop and commercialize

  • a new product or service or process; or
  • a significantly improved existing product or service or process,that will create or add value for customers or workflow.The mere act of developing
  • products or services or processes which do not have potential for commercialization; or
  • undifferentiated products or services or processes; or
  • products or services or processes with no or limited incremental value for customers or workflowwould not be covered under this definition.In order for a “Startup” to be considered eligible, the Startup should
    • be supported by a recommendation (with regard to innovative nature of business), in a format specified by DIPP, from an Incubator established in a post-graduate college in India; or
    • be supported by an incubator which is funded (in relation to the project) from GoI as part of any specified scheme to promote innovation; or
    • be supported by a recommendation (with regard to innovative nature of business), in a format specified by DIPP, from an Incubator recognized by GoI; or



  • be funded by an Incubation Fund/Angel Fund/ Private Equity Fund/ Accelerator/Angel Network duly registered with SEBI* that endorses innovative nature of the business; or
  • be funded by GoI as part of any specified scheme to promote innovation; or
  • have a patent granted by the Indian Patent and Trademark Office in areas affiliated with the nature of business being promoted.* DIPP may publish a ‘negative’ list of funds which are not eligible for this initiative.


As defined under The Companies Act, 2013

Inter-Ministerial Board

An Inter-Ministerial Board setup by DIPP to validate the innovative nature of the business for granting tax related benefits

Approval from the Inter-Ministerial Board shall not in any manner, limit or absolve the entity(ies) from any liability incurred in case of any misrepresentation/ fraud arising from submission of such application and/ or supporting such application.

Capital. Annexure II: Acronyms






Atal Bihari Vajpayee Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management



Alternate Investment Fund



Atal Innovation Mission



Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks



Department of Biotechnology



Dalit Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industry



Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion



Department of Science and Technology



Entrepreneurship Development Programme



Fair Market Value



Government of India



Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design & Manufacturing



Indian Institute of Management



Indian Institute of Science



Indian Institute of Science Education and Research



Indian Institute of Technology



Intellectual Property Rights



Key Performance Indicator



Life Insurance Corporation



Limited Liability Partnership



Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology



Ministry of Corporate Affairs



Ministry of Human Resource Development



Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology



Memorandum of Understanding



Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise



National Institute of Technology



National Institution for Transforming India



Doctor of Philosophy



Public Private Partnership



Research & Development



Rajiv Gandhi Indian Institute of Management



Securities and Exchange Board of India



Self-Employment and Talent Utilization



Small Industries Development Bank of India



Venture Capitalist



Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology